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European Journal of Cancer. July 2019

Secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis due to checkpoint inhibitor therapy

Collin K. Chin | Sara Hall | Celia Green | Guy Van Hazel | Dominic Spagnolo | Chan Yoon Cheah

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This paper highlights a case of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a rare but important complication of checkpoint inhibitor (CI) therapy which are widely used in the treatment of solid organ and haematological malignancies. We present a case report, diagnostic work-up, associated challenges in management and review the existing literature regarding HLH secondary to CI therapy. Our findings suggest that treatment discontinuation and high-dose corticosteroid therapy without chemotherapy may be sufficient in treating HLH related to CI therapy.

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